What is history studying?
It may seem strange to you, but even the most venerable professors, historians, cannot give a clear definition of what history studies. And some people are generally convinced that history is not a science, because there is no specific subject or object of study. There are various types of history: the history of society, the history of sports, economic history, etc. And it is very difficult to combine them all together.
In the literal translation of the word "story" means "a story about the events of the past." And to know the past is important for humanity, because historical experience is important in the development of society. Let us try to find the answer to the question of what the history of the necessary and useful modern man is studying.
What science studies history
It was always interesting for people to know what happened before and how our ancestors lived.
Science history operates only with exact facts. Like any other science, history develops, accumulating new facts and knowledge that it receives from various historical sources.
Many people mistakenly believe that history deals only with the study of events and their dates. But this is the science called chronology.And the main task of history is the accumulation and synthesis of human experience. History allows us to identify cause-effect relationships arising between various phenomena. An analysis of these relationships makes it possible to understand the essence of historical phenomena, and most importantly, to draw the necessary conclusions to avoid the repetition of certain mistakes of the past. Believe that the past does not disappear into nowhere, but continues to live around us in the experience of social life accumulated by mankind.
History studies the lives of people in space and in time. At the same time, the history of science does not imply any arbitrary withdrawal of facts from this life. In the past, history in our country was heavily politicized, and many facts were either ignored or one-sidedly covered. Nowadays, historians are moving away from the dogmas of the past and become objective. However, in recent years there have been many scholars - historians who evaluate historical events only as errors and tragedies. Such an approach to the study of the past also does not provide an objective assessment of historical events and is fundamentally wrong.
Scientists - historians have written many different scientific works,which reflect the various stages of the historical development of society, the relationship between the various historical processes occurring in the world.
What philosophy of history studies
Philosophy is not for nothing called the queen of science. It studies the most common laws of the development of nature and society. The section of philosophy that studies the historical process, which gives its interpretation, is called the philosophy of history.
The term �philosophy of history� was introduced in 1765 by the famous philosopher Voltaire. In the future, Hegel, Marx, Danilevsky, Kont, Spengler, Jaspers and many other philosophers played a large role in the development of this section of philosophy.
The questions that the philosophy of history studies have changed over time. Currently this science is studying:
- factors that make human society evolve;
- the direction in which the story is moving;
- what role does history play in present and future;
- what the human society expects in the future.
In addition, the philosophy of history is trying to find an answer to the question of whether there are any laws that allow influencing the course of the historical process, or whether history develops by the will of "His Majesty" case.
The philosophy of history and the science of history differ in their approach to historical events and facts.Historians are engaged only in the study of real facts of the past, do not make any predictions for the future. Assessing historical events, historians do not allow the subjunctive mood, i.e. describe and study only the real, and not the possible, course of historical events. In contrast, the philosophy of history not only studies the lines of development of any events in the past, but also tries to transfer them to the future.