What are the countries?
In the world economy there is a clear classification of countries according to the following criteria:
- absolute and relative GDP (GNP);
- sectoral structure of the national economy;
- ND and per capita income;
- the structure of exports and imports of the country;
- quality of life and population level.
The economic classification of countries can be determined by several approaches. Thus, the most understandable classification of countries by level of development is based on the division of states into several groups according to the level of per capita income.
According to other approaches, the classification of countries of the world is carried out by definition of their role in the world economy.
According to the role played in the global economy
The socio-economic nature of all countries of the world is extremely heterogeneous. At the moment, in the question of what countries there are, there are three groups:
- industrialized countries with dominant market economies. These powers form the skeleton of the entire world economy;
- developing countries - these include the states of Latin America and Oceania, Asia, Africa;
- States in transition.Today they are represented mainly by the countries of Eastern Europe, Russia. These powers are on the path of developing alternative new forms of management.
It is a mistake to draw a line between the above groups. In the question of which countries there are, the classification reflects the situation with the objects of the world economy, which with the development of the economy is changing every day. An example would be a whole group of developing countries - South Korea and Hong Kong, Taiwan, Brazil and Argentina, which, by a number of economic indicators, would already be logical to attribute to the group of industrialized nations of the world. With all this, the level of other indicators, such as the depth of social contrasts, regional development, traditionally still fit the definition of developing countries.
The industrialized countries with a stable market economy are represented by a group of 25 states with a total population of about 1.2 billion (this is approximately 23% of the total population of the globe). These powers concentrate more than 70% of world GDP, and produce 70-75% of products in various sectors of the total world industrial production.The high level of GDP and about 70% of world trade turnover falls on these countries.
Classification of countries by role in world politics and economics
There are three groups of countries.
- The first is formed by the seven main countries: Japan, USA, Germany, Great Britain, France, Canada and Italy. They are considered leading due to their role in world politics and economics. Also, the level of labor productivity in these countries is much higher than in the rest, and the success in science and technology is impressive.
- The second group consists of 14 countries (Belgium, Austria, the Netherlands, Denmark, Sweden, etc.). These countries are small in size and are characterized by a high level of social and economic development. Often they are a link in the political and economic relations between the states of the first group.
- The third group is represented by countries with “resettlement capitalism” (Australia, Israel, South Africa).
According to the level of development and structure of the productive forces
- The first group is represented by the most developed countries of Latin America (Brazil, Argentina, Mexico, Venezuela, Uruguay, etc.) and some industrialized countries of Asia (South Korea, Singapore, Taiwan, Hong Kong).
- The second group includes countries exporting oil and possessing unique resources (Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain, Libya, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Iraq, etc.). All of them are distinguished by a favorable economic position and a rich natural potential, which increases the level of per capita income.
- The third group consists of countries with an average level of economic development and average GDP (Colombia, Guatemala, Paraguay, Tunisia, etc.).
- In the fourth group - countries with vast territories and a large population, natural resources and opportunities for economic development. Here stand out India, Pakistan and Indonesia. These countries are important in an international context, but they are noticeably pulling down socio-economic development.
- The fifth group is represented by the least developed countries of the world (Bangladesh, Afghanistan, Somalia, Benin, Chad, etc.). Their low per capita income is associated with an unfavorable economic situation; therefore, it is agriculture that prevails.